All southern plantations and farms demanded this new invention. When Boulton and Watt developed a more efficient steam engine in 1783, the textile industry grew rapidly. In 2006 the National Trust acquired Quarry Bank House and its gardens and, in 2010, the gardener's house and the upper gardens. Francis Cabot Lowell of Massachusetts traveled to England in 1810 to tour Manchester's mills, just as they were being fitted with power looms. How then did Britain come to dominate the global production of a cloth made entirely from material imported from the southern United States, India, and Egypt? Samuel Slater, founder of the American cotton-textile industry. Interior of 18th Century English Textile Mill. The new machinery ended the traditional domestic system of textile production. It is about a kilometre away from Styal railway station. Women spun yarn, often helped by children. While some made fortunes from the cotton factories, those who worked in them had no union protection against excessive work, dangerous conditions and low pay – this was to come much later. Its design was functional and unadorned, growing out of the pragmatism of the men who felt no need to make a bold architectural statement. Belmont, like the other District Mill neighborhoods, grew rapidly during Charlotte’s textile boom. British Heritage Travel is published by Irish Studio, Ireland's largest magazine publishing company. Operates a self-acting spinning mule, patented by Richard Roberts, which could be operated by semi-skilled personnel. The best documented is Hillsborough Estate, Dominica which Samuel Greg and his brother Thomas inherited in 1795. Established in 1907, George Laxton and Gordon Holmes formed a worsted spinning mill, combining George’s technical know-how and Gordon’s financial expertise, producing wool and mohair yarns. In 2013, Channel 4 produced a docudrama, The Mill, inspired by the history of Quarry Bank Mill. As an apprentice in England to Jedediah Strutt (partner of Richard Arkwright), Slater gained a thorough knowledge of cotton manufacturing. A cotton mill in 1890 would contain over 60 mules, each with 1320 spindles. Cotton, on the other hand, was hardwearing, comfortable and inexpensive. It is still working today, powering the looms. The mill is the last remaining traditional cotton weaver in Burnley. UK cotton back in production in Manchester. The raw cotton had to be cleaned before it could be used by the fast-moving equipment, but it was taking a full day for one person to remove the seeds from one pound of cotton. ... while 30% are exporting a higher volume of Made in Britain goods. a. J C Cotton b. R L Cotton c. Richard Arkwrite d. None. The first cotton mill was established in 1771 at Cromford, Derbyshire, England. By the 1920s, the South took over textile production from New England. Samuel Greg's brother-in-law, Thomas Hodgson, owned a slave ship, his father Thomas Greg and his brother John Greg part owned sugar plantations on the Caribbean island of Dominica. This machine weaves thread or yarn into sheets of fabric. Cotton had become popular, however, and a home-based cotton industry sprung up using the raw material imported from the colonies. The estate surrounding the mill was developed and Greg converted farm buildings in Styal to house workers. When Greg retired in 1832 it was the largest such business in the United Kingdom. Browse our Fabric & Yarn Manufacturers List. They used the same head and tail race and operated until 1959. Here's what she lik... Choirs have always been closely associated with Wales.  It was a 10 hp beam engine from Boulton and Watt. The Cotton Mill invented in England , within the last twenty years forms an item of great importance in the general mass of national industry .To this invention is to be attributed essentially the immense progress, which has been so suddenly made in Great Britain in the various fabrics of cotton. COTTON MILL SITUATION; It Is Not Southern Rivalry That Has Created the Dissatisfaction in New England. In 1790, they built a new water-powered factory in Pawtucket, R.I., and in 1797 Slater built the White Mill on the Blackstone River and later a workers' village called Slatersville. The factory was built in 1784 by Greg to spin cotton. C) China. It spun yarn from between 20 and 30 spindles at one time, thus doing the work of several spinsters - a prospect that had made Hargreaves so unpopular in his neighborhood that a mob destroyed his spinning jennies and ran him out of town. He is regarded as the founder of the Factory Age. Manchester’s first cotton mill dates from 1783.  The first two-storey shed at Quarry Bank was 33 metres (108 ft) by 6.5 metres (21 ft). One of the biggest innovations in the textile production was the invention of the power loom, which was created by an English mechanist in 1784. Slater was a recent English immigrant who apprenticed Arkwright's partner, Jebediah Strutt. Which members of the royal family live in which castles? The cotton industry rose from being about 0% of GNP in 1760 to about 8% of GNP by 1812. Richard Arkwright then created the cotton mill. Today, the sturdy brick mills built to house the massive textile machinery still stand throughout New England and northern Britain, all turned to new uses. Since much of the imported cotton came from New England, ports on the west coast of Britain, such as Liverpool, Bristol and Glasgow, became important in determining the sites of the cotton industry. 11. The last child to be indentured started work in 1841. The mill continued in production until 1959. Traditionally, one handloom weaver needed the yarn output of four spinsters. With the introduction of electricity, the old water-powered mills in New England became obsolete and… Slater’s knowledge of both technology and mill organization made him the founder of the first truly successful cotton mill in the United States.  Children were willing to work in the mill because life at a workhouse was even worse.  Greg, like Robert Owen, who built New Lanark, attempted to bring the structured order of a country village to his new industrial centres. In 1793 he established the first successful cotton mill in the U.S.  In 2013, the trust launched an appeal to raise £1.4 million to restore a worker's cottage, a shop and the Greg's glasshouses and digitise records relating to Gregs and the mill workers. A sawmill and gristmill existed here as far back as the 1770s, and the first textile mill was in operation before the century’s end. To keep up with increasing demand, cotton mills sprung up across Britain, especially in the north of England. By 1840 Lowell had 10 mills employing more than 40,000 workers, mainly young women. As the mill increased in size, housing was constructed for the workers.  Hand-loom weaving continued in parallel to power loom weaving throughout the 19th century. By 1841 imports of raw cotton had risen to 205 thousand tonnes and they would peak in 1914 at almost a billion tonnes. Some years earlier, James Hargreaves invented a multi-spindle spinning frame called the Spinning Jenny, but this was not strong enough to form the warp of a fabric. Clog dancing is most notably associated with the 19th century Lancashire cotton mills, with towns like Colne. 1840s c. 1820s d. 1860s. Subscribe here to receive British Heritage Travel's print magazine! Samuel Greg leased land at Quarrell Hole on Pownall Fee from Lord Stamford, who imposed a condition that "none of the surrounding trees should be pruned, felled or lopped"; maintaining the woodland character of the area. They were Cotton Weavers e.t.c from Preston Lancashire. The challenge was to increase the head of water acting on the wheel while using the same volume of water. Inventors, therefore, bent their minds to creating cotton-processing machines, and cotton spearheaded the British industry into the factory system. In 1806 he created a mill that he named Slatersville. Flax, the raw material for linen, also thrives in rain. The Gregs were careful and pragmatic, paternalistic millowners, and the mill was expanded and changed throughout its history. Cotton was introduced to the country in the 16th century and by the 1700s it had changed the way people dressed. By PS Stott. The first industrialised cotton mills were opened in the 18th Century and by the middle of the next Century there were over 2500 mills in Lancashire employing over half a million workers. When Greg's son, Robert Hyde Greg, took over the business, he introduced weaving. Samuel Slater is an American inventor who was born on June 9, 1768. Considered as a whole it presents a remarkable picture of an early textile factory complex. It is here that the term ‘heel and toe’ was first used, derived from the changes made to the clog in the 1500s. The third wheel of 1807 was a replacement for one of the wooden wheels. Coal miners in Northumbria and Durham developed the dance too. Textile workers plied their craft at home, sometimes to supplement farming. We've created a true ‘Made in Britain’ business, sourcing premium raw materials globally to produce some of the finest quality cotton yarns available. The mills either prepared and spun the cotton or wove it into … The Kiss of Death Story. B y 1820, mills had spread south into Virginia and Kentucky and the first mill … Eli Whitney, a New Englander, solved that problem with his cotton gin, which used a series of steel disks fitted with hooks to drag the cotton through slots in a grid, leaving the seeds behind. The Bolton cotton industry production was boosted significantly by technological investment. When the wheel turned, the motion moved the belt and powered the machinery. 1850s b. Slater built several successful cotton mills in New England and established the town of Slatersville, … Gibson Mill, a 19th-century former cotton mill, in secluded woodland at Hardcastle Crags, near Hebden Bridge, West Yorkshire, England.Tom Green / Flickr. In 1905 two water turbines built by Gilbert Gilkes and Company were installed to replace the Great Wheel. , In 2020, the Trust was working on a plan to include coverage about the owners of its properties who had links to colonialism and slavery, including this estate which has links to the slave owning cotton plantations in the Americas.  In 2013 the mill received 130,000 visitors. Sign up to British Heritage Travel's daily newsletter here! Manchester’s first cotton mill dates from 1783. James Hargreaves had invented the "spinning jenny," which Richard Arkwright greatly improved in 1769 with the development of the "waterwheel spinning frame" -- the water-powered cotton mill.Before that, cotton was woven by hand on looms. Self-actor minder. Operates a self-acting spinning mule, patented by Richard Roberts, which could be operated by semi-skilled personnel. B) Cochin.  The site consisted of three farms or folds. Unlike wool, its production was not controlled by ancient practices because it had only become widely available after the East India Company began exporting it from India in the late 17th century. A weaving shed needed the correct light and humidity and a floor that was stable enough to withstand the vibration caused by the picking of many looms.  The 1784 mill ran 2425 spindles, after 1805 with the new wheel it ran 3452 spindles.  Greg employed Peter Holland, father of the Royal Physician Sir Henry Holland, 1st Baronet and uncle of Elizabeth Gaskell, as mill doctor. Workers, therefore, had to follow strict rules about work and punctuality. - … They typically rose at 5:30 a.m., were given a piece of bread to eat and began work at 6. Daughters of local farmers often did the spinning and weaving in the mills. It was connected by road to the Bridgewater Canal for transporting raw cotton from the port of Liverpool. National Trust preserved textile mill in Cheshire, England, sfn error: no target: CITEREFCalladineFricker2007 (, Examination of Thomas Priestly, 02-08-1806, Manchester Central Reference Library, C5/8/9/5 (1806), textile factories of the Industrial Revolution, Grade II* listed buildings in Cheshire East, "The Disturbances in the Manufacturing Districts", BBC News: Project to restore Quarry Bank Mill in Cheshire, National Trust hastens projects exposing links of country houses to slavery, Addressing the histories of slavery and colonialism at the National Trust, "The Greg family of Styal | Revealing Histories", › Domenica Estates Janus Repositories, University of Cambridge, Quarry Bank Mill and Styal Estate information at the National Trust, National Trust: Collection of primary source documents relating to the Gregs and Quarry Bank Mill, The sound of Quarry Bank Mill on Sound Tourism site, Augusta Canal Discovery Center at Enterprise Mill, Fashion Institute of Design & Merchandising Museum, Watkins Woolen Mill State Park and State Historic Site, Ixchel Museum of Indigenous Textiles and Clothing, Museum of Ayrshire Country Life and Costume, Musée des Tissus et des Arts décoratifs de Lyon, Museum of Domestic Design and Architecture, Museum of the History of the Greek Costume, National Handicrafts and Handlooms Museum, Amalgamated Association of Beamers, Twisters and Drawers (Hand and Machine), Amalgamated Association of Operative Cotton Spinners, Amalgamated Textile Warehousemen's Association, General Union of Lancashire and Yorkshire Warp Dressers' Association, Lancashire Amalgamated Tape Sizers' Friendly Society, North East Lancashire Amalgamated Weavers' Association, Northern Counties Textile Trades Federation, United Textile Factory Workers' Association, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Quarry_Bank_Mill&oldid=998817812, Former textile mills in the United Kingdom, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 January 2021, at 04:55. By the time of Hargreaves' death, more than 20,000 spinning jennies were in use. Britain not only had clean supplies of American cotton and an array of machines to handle every stage of making it into cloth, but it also had good power supplies. The mill closed in 1970, but the following year Harrisville Designs was created as a retail operation that would preserve the mill’s history of yarn- and cloth-making. This gave a head of 32 feet (9.8 m) acting on the 32 feet (9.8 m) diameter suspension wheel- which is 21 feet (6.4 m) wide.  Greg believed he could get the best out of his workers by treating them fairly. Prince Philip told his wife that her father had died and she was no... Did you know Queen Elizabeth has a sweet tooth? Modern Blackburn. Contingents of immigrants from Lancashire went to the mills of New Bedford, Mass., and silk workers from Macclesfield in Cheshire left for Paterson, N.J. -- a town often called Silk City, as was Macclesfield. More important, the nonprofit Historic Harrisville was formed to preserve the town’s history while also shaping its future. The construction of the Louise Cotton Mill in 1897 changed this and created what is now Belmont. Built in 1784, the cotton mill is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II* listed building. Considered the father of the United States textile industry, Slater eventually built several successful cotton mills in New England and established the town of Slatersville, Rhode Island. Life was equally hard for adult factory workers. The Slater mill was the first American factory to successfully produce cotton yarn with water-powered machines. They’re fundamental to the history, culture and landscape of northern England. ISBN 978-1-907686-24-5 . Samuel Slater of Derbyshire responded to an advertisement offering £100 bounties to English mill workers prepared to emigrate to America. Cotton Mill Furthermore, numerous inventions and technological development transformed the cotton industry, in turn helping to establish the UK as the cotton ‘workshop of the world’. See & Hear working Textile Machines in the Last Working Cotton Mill in Rossendale.  The engines no longer exist and the museum has purchased a similar steam engine to display. By the 1830s cotton represented 20% of British imports, and cotton goods were 50% of British exports.  It is believed it was a suspension wheel, 8 metres (26 ft) in diameter made from iron to the design of Thomas Hewes. Richard Arkwright invented the Water Frame that enabled powered multi-spindled cotton spinning and took advantage of James Hargreaves Spinning Jenny. But after James Watt invented the steam engine in 1781, coal became the main fuel. Based on the designs of English inventor Richard Arkwright, a mill was built by Samuel Slater on the Blackstone River. Cotton doubling mill, steam powered. He gleaned enough so that in 1814 he built the first mill in America capable of transforming raw cotton into finished … The First American Cotton Mill Began Operation December 20, 1790 Samuel Slater built that first American mill in Pawtucket based on designs of English inventor Richard Arkwright. The industrial revolution started in Great Britain in the mid-1700s. The innovative cotton mill was developed by Richard Arkwright in 1771 in the town of Cromford, located in Derbyshire, England. Cromford Mill, the world’s first successful water powered cotton spinning mill, was built in 1771 by Sir Richard Arkwright. The process of producing cotton involved carding, twisting, spinning and milling. Quarry Bank Mill is on the outskirts of Styal in Cheshire, abutting and to the south of Manchester Airport. The Hewes wheel broke in 1904 but the River Bollin continued to power the mill through two water turbines. This cotton mill was set up in 1771 at Cromford in Derbyshire. The Mill was attacked during the Plug Plot riots on 10 August 1842.. The following article is from The Kiss of Death Story by Horatio Rogers, M.D. Few adults could leave the mills, especially when whole cities were devoted to textiles and little other work was available. C) Ahemdabad. Located on Miller Street, it was built for Richard Arkwright and was water powered. The introduction of the Peter Drinkwater Mill … The new technology put home spinners out of business. James Hargreaves had invented the "spinning jenny," which Richard Arkwright greatly improved in 1769 with the development of the "waterwheel spinning frame" - the water-powered cotton mill. Suddenly, a process that was extraordinarily labor-intensive when done by hand could be completed quickly and easily. Considered one of the worst jobs in the mill – very low status! In the early industrial period, one of the first products to be manufactured in New England on a large scale with water power was cotton cloth. Highs wanted a machine for spinning cotton that would multiply threads more quickly, and he built a device with six spindles. The cotton mills employed less in the city as the century wore on, by 1840 only 18% of the work force worked in cotton manufacture. , The fourth wheel, the Great Wheel was also designed by Hewes. Quarry Bank is an example of an early, rural, cotton-spinning mill that was initially dependent on water power. 3 thoughts on “ Role of the Massachusetts Textile Mills in the Industrial Revolution ” Val Allport May 23, 2017 at 7:15 pm. Richard Arkwright in 1769. a. A view inside the largest water wheel in the UK, situated at the Quarry Bank cotton mill. The spinning jenny invented by James Hargreaves and the water frame created by Richard Arkwright made it possible for large scale production. Q36- Wootz steel was manufactured in _____ A) Java. Many textile workers therefore emigrated. Francis Cabot Lowell of Massachusetts traveled to England in 1810 to tour Manchester's mills, just as they were being fitted with power looms. The mill was extended between 1817 and 1820 and a mansard-roofed wing extended part of the 1796 building forward beneath which the wheel was installed.  Between the years 1824 and 1830 Richard Roberts invented a mechanism that rendered all parts of the mule self-acting, regulating the rotation of the spindles during the inward run of the carriage. On December 20, 1790, a mill, with water-powered machinery for spinning, roving, and carding cotton, began operating on the banks of the Blackstone River in Pawtucket, Rhode Island.Based on designs of the English inventor Richard Arkwright, the mill was built by Samuel Slater, a recent English immigrant who had apprenticed with Arkwright’s partner, Jebediah Strutt. He hired a superintendent to attend to their care and morals and members of the Greg family and external tutors gave them lessons. Silk, introduced by French Protestant silk workers fleeing persecution in the 17th century, was also made in Britain, mostly in London. The new building kept the 1784 detailing with respect to line and windows. He, perhaps more than any other single person, created the cotton industry that spurred the Industrial Revolution and created great wealth for himself and for England. Our Victorian former cotton mill is now home to the most modern cotton spinning facility anywhere. It represents one of the oldest surviving textile mill complexes in the United States. In 1836 with the arrival of power looms a second 20 hp Boulton and Watt beam engine was acquired. But by the mid-18th century, many weavers were using the flying shuttle that had been invented by John Kay of Bury, Lancashire, in 1733. English immigrants staffed the sorting rooms of the mills in Lawrence, Mass. The work was sometimes dangerous, with fingers sometimes being severed by the machines. Until 1833, hours of employment were not regulated, and it was 1844 before the law insisted that the machinery had to be fenced to prevent death and dismemberment. The original factories needed a constant power supply and the fast flowing rivers in the Pennines provided this. Correct Answer: C . The textile business in Britain, though successful, went through economic cycles. Though it was against British law to leave the country if you were a textile worker, Slater fled anyway in order to seek his fortune in America. Through the day, they usually had three short breaks, when they were fed oatmeal, and then at 8:30 p.m., after finishing their shift, they got a supper of bread or broth. Early life. A working Mule spinning machine at Quarry Bank Mill. Serendipitously, England's richest mines were also near the Pennines in Lancashire, Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire, and Derbyshire. These 18th- and 19th-century devices express both the engineering achievements of their inventors and the difficult lives of those who operated them. “A person of a historical turn of mind living in the Merrimack Valley can hardly escape becoming interested in the early days of the textile industry, which once flourished here. Quarry Bank Mill is of national significance in that it used two-storey side-lit buildings rather the a single storey sheds with a saw-tooth roof. Samuel Slater (a) was a British migrant who brought plans for English textile mills to the United States and built the nation’s first successful water-powered mill in Pawtucket, Massachusetts (b). The water wheel was at the north end of the mill. In later years, immigrants became mill "hands." Sadly, the north’s historic mills are rapidly being lost. Opposition from the Lancashire mill owners was eventually offset by the support of the British manufacturers of textile machinery. Arkwright set up the first water-powered cotton mill at Cromford, Derbyshire, in 1771. Did you know these facts about Queen Elizabeth? First, the production was powered by water wheels, and Lancashire was abundant in water with its many rivers which created the ideal conditions for water-powered cotton mills. he first cotton mill was established in 1771 at Cromford, Derbyshire, England. Nevertheless cotton remained a major industry in the town between the wars. Main article: Paul-Wyatt cotton mills The first cotton mills were established in the 1740s to house roller spinning machinery invented by Lewis Paul and John Wyatt. According to the original caption, she is in charge of two looms. The thunderous noise of the machinery never ceased, so most older workers became deaf. The engineering feats of the day were revolutionary and for the British Midlands, manufacturing became the backbone of the area. Q37- _____ saw its first cotton mill in 1861. This was coupled with the fast weaving enabled by John Kays Flying Shuttle putting home weavers out of work. 1794. Scutching is the separation of the valuable fibres from the woody seeds of the raw cotton. Each house had a parlour, kitchen and two bedrooms (a two-up two-down), an outside privy and a small garden. Wool production was difficult to mechanize because centuries-old laws protected traditional ways of making it. In 1793, Eli Whitney revolutionized the production of cotton when he invented the cotton gin, a device that separated the seeds from raw cotton. Cotton Mills in New England. England engaged in cotton textile production in mid-18th century, and Lancashire was one of the centers where it was made along with its neighbouring counties. He built Oak School to educate the children and the Norcliffe Chapel where the villagers worshipped and held a Sunday school. 8. In 1781, Sir Richard Arkwright opened the world's first steam-powered textile mill on Miller Street in Manchester. The 1930s were years of mass unemployment in Blackburn and many mills closed for good. In 1916, the Standard-Coosa-Thatcher cotton mill was erected in Chattanooga, Tennessee. James Hargreaves (1720-78), who is widely credited for inventing the spinning jenny and was also from Lancashire, apparently improved Highs' design by adding more spindles. Quarry Bank Mill employed child apprentices, a system that continued until 1847. The first children apprentices lived in lodgings in the neighbourhood then in 1790 Greg built the Apprentice House near the factory. Front elevation of Quarry Bank Mill Quarry Bank is an example of an early, rural, cotton-spinning mill that was initially dependent on water power. Around 1830 the power loom became sufficiently viable for independent weaving sheds to be set up, and for larger owners to add weaving sheds to their spinning mills.  When the mill was restored in 1983, a 25 feet (7.6 m) diameter waterwheel of similar design to that of Hewes by his pupil Sir William Fairbairn, was moved from Glasshouses Mill in Pateley Bridge and installed to provide power to work the machinery. The Boott Cotton Mills, constructed from 1835-c. 1910, was one of many cotton textile mill complexes established in the growing city of Lowell, Massachusetts. He gleaned enough so that in 1814 he built the first mill in America capable of transforming raw cotton into finished cloth, located on the Charles River at Waltham, Mass. Three major investments were significant: The establishment of the Ashworth Mill (further enhanced by Samuel Crompton’s spinning mule).  It was a four-storey mill measuring 8.5 metres (28 ft) by 27.5 metres (90 ft), with an attached staircase, counting house and warehouse. These photographs of the exterior of listed buildings … Machines had to be close to their power source; they could not be in cottages. Today the mill houses the most powerful working waterwheel in Europe, an iron wheel moved from Glasshouses Mill at Pateley Bridge designed by Sir William Fairbairn who had been Hewes' apprentice. A new engine house was built. 45% of Greater Manchester’s historic mills have been lost since the 1980s, with a similar rate of loss in West Yorkshire. Quarry Bank Mill (also known as Styal Mill) in Styal, Cheshire, England, is one of the best preserved textile factories of the Industrial Revolution. This mill is now featured as a part of the Derwent Valley Mills World Heritage Site. The textile mills were a brand new system to America, and they proved to be extremely successful. More likely, both spinsters and weavers worked on the "putting out" system: A merchant supplied the raw fiber and then picked up the finished goods for sale elsewhere. Initially, they were brought from Hackney and Chelsea but by 1834 they came mostly from neighbouring parishes or Liverpool poorhouses. On Sundays, they had reading lessons, church, and chores, such as tending the owner's vegetable gardens. His accomplishments have led many to consider him to be the "Father of American Industry" and the "Founder of the American Industrial Revolution." Visitors will find information about the "histories of slavery and colonialism".. The mill owners bought a Boulton and Watt steam engine in 1810 and a few years later purchased another because the river's water level was low in summer and could interrupt production of cloth during some years. Up to 40% of accidents dealt with at the Manchester Infirmary in 1833, were factory and mill related. The character of Manchester changed. Early cotton mills were built near to rivers and used large water wheels to power the machines inside them. Textile production was the first great industry created. The expansion of railways took place in colonies in. To increase power he dammed the Bollin and took water into the mill directly, the tailrace leaving the river below the dam. Across the Southeast, cotton mills were thriving at the turn of the 20th century. Samuel Slater was born in Belper, Derbyshire, England, to William and Elizabeth Slater, on June 9, 1768, the fifth son in a farming family of eight children.He received a basic education, perhaps at a school run by Thomas Jackson. At that time, Standard, Coosa, and Thatcher were three separate companies located directly beside one another. In America, Slater teamed with Moses Brown, who had been experimenting with machinery in Providence, R.I., and introduced him to the water frame. , The first wheel was a wooden overshot wheel taking water by means of a long leat from upstream on the River Bollin.